Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics <p><em>Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics</em>&nbsp;(IEEJSP) is a peer-reviewed journal promoting multidisciplinary and comparative thinking on Eastern and Central European societies in a global context. IEEJSP publishes research with international relevance and encourages comparative analysis both within the region and with other parts of the world. Founded by the Centre for Social Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,&nbsp;and published currently by Centre for Social Sciences in Budapest, IEEJSP provides an international forum for scholars coming from and/or working on the region.</p> <p>Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics is indexed by Web of Science, Scopus,&nbsp;CEEOL, ERIH, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus.&nbsp; The evaluation process is at an advanced stage with ProQuest Sociological Abstracts, EBSCO, and DOAJ.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em>..............................................................................................................</p> <div id="content">&nbsp;</div> Centre for Social Sciences, Hungary en-US Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2416-089X <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong></p><p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work three months after publication simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. This acknowledgement is not automatic, it should be asked from the editors and can usually be obtained one year after its first publication in the journal.</p> Grassroots responses to mass migration in Europe <p>Editorial introduction to the thematic issue 'Grassroots responses to mass migration in Europe'</p> Carna Brkovic Antonio De Lauri Sabine Hess Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 1 12 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.897 Book review Ildikó Zakariás Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 93 99 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.894 The temporality of humanitarianism <p>While recognizing that ‘volunteering for refugees’ is entangled in ethical and political power dimensions, this article will discuss how we can ethnographically explore the everyday humanitarian practices of volunteers as shaped in intrinsic ways by their mode of being in the world as ethically concerned human beings. Building on recent scholarship within the anthropology of humanitarianism in which local and everyday versions of humanitarian practice are foregrounded, we wish to further the understanding of everyday volunteer practices through establishing a lens of temporality. Based on ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews among small-scale volunteer networks and NGOs in Greece and in Northern Europe working in response to the refugee influx to Europe since 2015, we suggest three different modalities of volunteering among non-professionals, which we designate: temporality of crisis, which concentrates on the impulse to help as an immediate response to a critical moment in time, temporality of care expressing the asymmetrical presences in the field of volunteering and temporality of reflexivity, which highlights ambivalence and doubt as intrinsic to the volunteer practices. In this article, we aim for a provincializing of everyday humanitarian practices and explore humanitarianism ‘from the ground’ and in specific locations and times.</p> Synnøve Kristine Nepstad Bendixsen Marie Sandberg Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 13 31 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.734 Guessing games with target groups <p>In the wake of mass-migrations of refugees seeking safety and stability in Europe, this contribution studies emerging grassroots organizations that support refugee status holders in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The municipality expects these organizations to adhere to the European trend to incorporate immigrant integration priorities in interventions that apply to all residents. The article discusses the paradox of how bureaucratic classifications regarding preferred target groups cast certain grassroots responses as fringe-activities that are less legible bureaucratically. Based on a year of ethnographic fieldwork, this article shows how this lessened legibility translates into profound insecurities for grassroots organizers. The article discusses how these insecurities, in combination with the uncertainty grassroots organizers feel regarding their employability, motivate them to play guessing games and to give in to municipal preferences to boost their eligibility for funding. It argues that this process of giving in to municipal preferences should be understood as an attempt to render their endeavors legible, reduce precariousness, secure a livelihood, and turn affective labor into a life-sustaining practice. In so doing, this contribution evokes the story of a particular grassroots organizer—a woman of color with a forced migration background.</p> Lieke van der Veer Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 32 48 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.797 Between supporting and reporting <p>In response to the mass mobilities disruption of the European Union border control regime, numerous self-organized, pro-migrant <em>ad hoc </em>solidarity groups proliferated across Europe. Depending on the local, national, and migratory contexts, these groups employed different methods and practices to support the people on the move and to challenge the inefficient, bureaucratized, discriminatory and securitized modes of action of official, state and humanitarian actors. Some practices that were developed in this framework of grassroots or vernacular humanitarianism with strong solidarity and a volunteer dimension (Brković, 2017; McGee and Pelham, 2017; Rozakou, 2017a; Sandri, 2018) outgrew the initial crisis context and evolved over time into distinctive formats of response to the border restrictions, exclusions, and violence. One of them is still today a lating practice of reporting of pushbacks by grassroots groups active at different locations at the southeastern territorial fringes of the EU. After reviewing the relevant literature and outlining the grassroots, self-organized, humanitarian and human rights background of pushback reports and reporting practices, the author focuses on these reports as a form of writing. Interest in the style, narrtive structure, and positionality of these reports opens questions of their parallels with ethnographic inquiries.</p> Marijana Hameršak Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 49 72 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.752 The black holes of Lesbos: life and death at Moria camp <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 200%;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: small;">The EU-Turkey Deal of 2016 led to the enactment of a restrictive and specific asylum process for the Greek island of Lesbos, making the former Moria camp a detention center for thousands of migrants who failed to access international protection. Based on ethnographic evidence, I analyze and propose that the asylum process in Lesbos—a postcolonial border space under EU interference and control—derives from the colonial system of white supremacy. Based on historical and re-actualized racializations of migrant populations from different countries of the global south, the aim of the Greek asylum process has been to subject migrant populations in Moria to various processes of control, detention, illegalization and ultimately exposure to premature socio-physical death as in black holes: historical spaces of anti-black racism and humanitarian abandonment in the most hidden layers of Moria.</span></p> Edgar Córdova Morales Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 73 87 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.895 Mapping the field of turbulent changes around the issue of migration in Poland <p>The issue of migration had become highly politicized in Poland already before the 2015 elections. The neoconservative Law and Justice (<em>Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, PiS</em>) party made it one of the key topics in the electoral campaign both for the parliamentary and for the presidential elections, both of which the party won. Poland has switched from a country with the highest acceptance rate of refugees in the EU to the one with the lowest rate within about a year. The narrative about masses of refugees in Poland and at its borders threatening Polish culture, civilization and identity started to gather momentum and has provoked numerous intended and unintended consequences, political and social.&nbsp;On the one hand such statements and politics have sparked an increase in hate speech and incidents, and violent actions. On the other, as a reaction, there is an observable awakening of the civil society in Poland through more intensified actions of various groups and organizations. Both are outcomes of the situation in which the government and the ruling party take a strong and negative stance on the issue of migrants and refugees. At the same time, anti-racist activism has been instrumentalized as a tool for anti-government struggles, involving new actors into the struggle. The new alliances forged after 2015 are more than interesting and will be described below, based on the empirical research conducted for a comparative research project on anti-racist contention in the Baltic Sea region. I will show particularly the nature of cooperation between grassroots groups (often radical) and the more moderate NGOs, activists (of both stripes) and civil servants as well as politicians; and here point to the specific role of municipalities and the city-level.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Grzegorz Piotrowski Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 88 92 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.880 Are anti-immigrant attitudes the Holy Grail of populists? <p>In this paper we aim to discuss attitudes towards immigrants in a European context and analyse drivers of anti-immigrant attitudes such as the feeling of control, basic human values, political orientation and preferences related to right-wing populism. Based on data from the European Social Survey, we first describe how attitudes of people in Europe changed throughout a period of almost two decades (between 2002 and 2018). We will show that although attitudes are influenced by a number of demographic and subjective features of individuals, on the macro-level they seem to be surprisingly stable, yet hide significant cross-country differences. Then, we zoom in to the three most significant elements influencing attitudes towards immigrants: the feeling of control, basic human values, and political orientation. Applying a multi-level model we test the validity of three theories about factors informing attitudes towards immigrants—competition theory, locus of control, and the role of basic human values—and include time (pre- and post-2015 refugee-crisis periods) into the analysis. In the discussion we link ESS data to recent research on populism in Europe that categorizes populist parties across the continent, and establish that the degree to which anti-migrant feelings are linked to support for political populism varies significantly across European countries. We show that right-wing populist parties gather and feed that part of the population which is very negative towards migrants and migration in general, and this process is also driven by the significance awarded the value of security vis-à-vis humanitarianism.</p> Vera Messing Bence Ságvári Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 100 127 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.750 Counter-movement at a critical juncture <p>This article seeks to explain the causes of the growing popularity of the illiberal right, taking the Polish political party Law and Justice as an example. The adopted analytical approach combines insights derived from the work of Karl Polanyi and the tradition of historical institutionalism. The victory of Law and Justice in the 2015 Polish parliamentary elections is argued to constitute a critical juncture that initiated a fundamental break with the liberal order. Following Polanyi, we argue that the seeds of the recent anti-liberal counter-revolution can be found in the malfunctioning of the Polish economic order built during the period of transition. However, Law and Justice has managed to make use of the critical juncture arising from social discontent and has used it instrumentally to dismantle liberal constitutionalism and the rule of law.</p> Sławomir Czech Maciej Kassner Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 128 148 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.733 The Human embryo <p>When in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments first appeared in Hungarian legislation, the related experiences and the moral dilemmas of couples who go through these procedures were unknown. Couples have to make a great variety of decisions during the IVF process. In our study, we focus on the journey of the human embryo in IVF treatment through the ethical lenses of women. In order to explore the differences between established ethical and legal frameworks and the perspectives of women who have participated in an IVF procedure in Hungary, we conducted semi-structured interviews. In contrast to the static view of embryos typical to a part of the ethics literature, which also characterizes most established legal frameworks, patients’ view of embryos of interviewees was dynamic: they interpreted embryos in a malleable and constantly changing way. Embryos were perceived differently depending on time, place, and biological characteristics, and primarily in relation to how they could contribute to achieving the goals of treatment. In this article, we also demonstrate that<br />the main ethical framework that the participants in our research evoked in relation to the IVF process was related to the ethics of medical treatment. At the end of the paper we also make an attempt to draw some conclusions that may help ameliorate problems with the current normative ethical and legal framework by incorporating the experiences of women who participate in IVF procedures.</p> Lilla Vicsek Judit Sándor Zsófia Bauer Copyright (c) 2021 Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 7 2 149 169 10.17356/ieejsp.v7i2.780