The other side of the coin: Women’s participation in far right parties and movements in Greece and Hungary
Although numerous studies on the far right have been conducted, some aspects of the topic are still underresearched. One of these aspects is the gender dimension of far right movements. This paper reveals this poorly researched topic, while seeking women’s participation and activism in the far right movements, focusing on women’s roles in political parties, movements, and the surrounding subculture. The study presents the results of a comparative research of two parties regarding women’s presence: Jobbik in Hungary and the Golden Dawn in Greece. I describe the gender gap in the far right, and the forms of women’s participation. I argue that although women support the far right in smaller numbers than men, they nonetheless have a significant input in the growing public support that these parties enjoy. This suggests a new picture of mainstream parties for these far right parties that are no longer excessively masculine.
Art, D. (2013) Why 2013 Is Not 1933: The Radical Right in Europe. Current History, 112 (752) 88-93.
Betz, H. G. (1994) Radical right-wing populism in Western Europe. New York: St. Martin’s.
Coffé, H (2014) Gender, class, and radical right voting. In Rydgren, J. (ed.) Class Politics and the Radical Right. New York: Routledge. 138-156.
Dauber, S. A. (2014) Not all Nazis are men. In Segal, M.T. and Demos, V. (eds.) Gendered Perspectives on Conflict and Violence: B. UK: Emerald. 171-195.
Durham, M. (1998) Women and Fascism. London/New York: Routledge.
Elverich, G. (2007) Rechtsextrem orientierte Frauen und Mädchen – eine besondere Zielgruppe? http://www.bpb.de/politik/extremismus/rechtsextremismus/41506/rechtsextrem-orientierte-frauen-und maedchen?p=all Accessed: 11-09-2014.
Félix, A. (2012a) The forgotten question – Women’s role in the contemporary Hungarian radical right. http://www.ideaintezet.hu/en/node/140 Accessed: 11-10-2012. (In Hungarian)
Félix, A. (2012b) In the wake of mystery of Spiritual woman. Historical heritage and cultural continuity in a group of radical right women. Kaleidoscope, 3 (4) 190-199. (In Hungarian)
Félix, A. (2013) United Colors of Jobbik. Enemies of freedom. Scapegoating ideologies, antisemitic conspiracy theories andcounter-narratives. Political Capital Institute and Szombat Jewish Political and Cultural Magazine.
Félix, A. and Gregor, A (2014) Do you need a team? Examining Jobbik and its young supporters from gender approach. In Nagy, Á and Székely, L. (eds.) From second hand–Hungarian Youth 2012. Budapest: Iszt Alapítvány-Kutatópont. 263-291. (In Hungarian)
Félix, A. (2014a) Toward an alternative emancipation. In Bitzan, R., Koettig, M. and Pető, A. (eds.) Gender and Far Right Politics in Europe (forthcoming).
Félix, A. (2014b) Behind the Sunrise: Women and the Golden Dawn- the Greek Far Right from a Gender Approach. Nationalist Responses to Economic and Political Crises, Central European University. Available at: http://tk.mta.hu/uploads/files/Final_ASN.pdf
Fontana, M.C., Sidler, A. and Hardmeier, S. (2006) The ‘New Right‘ vote: An analysis of the gender gap in the vote choice for the SVP. Swiss Political Science Review, 12. 243-271.
Gidengil, E., M. Hennigar, A. Blais & N. Nevitte (2005) Explaining The Gender Gap in Support for the New Right: The Case of Canada. Comparative Political Studies, 38. 1171-1195.
Givens, Terri E. (2004) The radical right gender gap. Comparative Political Studies, 371. 30-54.
Gregor, A. (2012) Even a far right supporter has gender. In Gerő, M., Fonyó, A., Petényi, M., Szabó, F. (eds.) A nyilvánosság elemzésétől a választáskutatásig – Tanulmányok Angelusz Róbert emlékére. Budapest: ELTE ARTSZ. 94-124. (In Hungarian)
Grajczjár, I., Tóth, A. (2011) Crisis, radicalization and the promise of rebirth: The road of Jobbik to the parliament. In Enyedi, Zs., Szabó, A. and Tardos, R. (eds.) New formula: Elections in Hungary. Budapest: DKMKA. 95-122. (In Hungarian)
Hainsworth, P. (2008) The extreme right in Western Europe. USA: Routledge
Immerzeel, T., Coffé, H. and van der Lippe, T. (2013) Explaining the gender gap in far right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries. Comparative European Politics, http://www.palgrave-journals.com/cep/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/cep201320a.html Accessed: 10-09-2014.
Jackson, P. and Gable, G. (2011) Far-Right.com: Nationalist Extremism on the Internet. London: Searchlight Magazine.
Janky, B. (2005) The time to have children among Roma women. A gyermekvállalás időzítése a cigány nők körében. http://beszelo.c3.hu/cikkek/a-gyermekvallalas-idozitese-a-cigany-nok-koreben Accessed: 29-10-2014. (In Hungarian)
Kapa Research (2014) Polls, Predictions and Election Results. http://kaparesearch.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=81:polls-predictions-results 2014&Itemid=204&lang=en#startOfPageId81 Accessed: 12-07-2014.
Kaplan, J. and Tore, B. (eds.) (1998) Nation and race: the developing Euro- American racist subculture. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Kimmel, M. (2007) Racism as Adolescent Male Rite of Passage. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 36 (2) 202-218.
Mayer, N. (2013) From Jean-Marie to Marine Le Pen: Electoral Change on the Far Right. Parliamentary Affairs, 66. 160–178.
Mudde, C. (2013) The myth of Weimar Europe. Open Democracy. https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/cas-mudde/myth-of-weimar-europe Accessed: 10-10-2014.
Nagel, J. (1998) Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21(2) 242-269.
General Secretariat for Gender Equality (2013) National Program Gender Equality 2010-1013. http://www.isotita.gr/en/var/uploads/HOME%20PAGE/NATIONAL_PROGRAMME_GENDER_EQUALITY_2010_2013.pdf Accessed: 10-03-2014.
Norocel, C. (2011) A Feminist Reading of Conceptual Metaphors: the Construction of Radical Right Populist Masculinities in Sweden. http://www.ecprnet.eu/sg/ecpg/documents/papers/L-Z/NorocelOvC.pdf Accessed: 11-09-2013.
Félix, A., Fokasz, N. and Tóth, G., HAS-ELTE Peripato Research Group (2014) The Reality of Mass Media and the Rise of Jobbik in Hungarian Political Life: Roma/Gipsy Topics in the Hungarian Dailies and Parliamentary Speeches between 2002 and 2014. European Sociological Association Research Network 18 Sociology of Communications and Media Research. Available at ESA: http://topub.unibuc.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/ESA-RN18_Program_10oct_2.pdf
Norris, P. (2005) Far Right Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market. New York: Cambridge, University Press.
Pető, A. (2008) The Rhetoric of Weaving and Healing: Women’s Work in Interwar Hungary, a Failed Anti-Democratic Utopia. In Yannitsiotis, Y., Lampropoulou, D. and Salvaterra, C. (eds.) Rhetorics of Work. Pisa: Plus-Pisa University Press. 63-82.
Pető, A. (2012) Far Right Movements and Gendered Mobilisation in Hungary. Queries. 1(7) 130–135.
Polyakova, A. (2012) Explaining Support for Radical Right Parties in New Democracies: The Limits of Structural Determinants and the Potentiality of Civil Society. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5vc1s21q Accessed: 15-10-2014.
Public Issue (2012) Greek Elections June 2012 – Voter Demographics.shttp://www.publicissue.gr/en/1689/greek-elections-6-2012-voter-demographics/ Accessed: 09-11-2013.
Psarras, D. (2012) H µαύρη βίβλος της ΧρυσήςΑυγής. [The Black Bible of Golden Dawn.] Athens: Polis. (In Greek)
Rose, W. N. (2014) Thirties Throwbacks: Explaining the Electoral Breakthroughs of Jobbik and Golden Dawn http://ase.tufts.edu/polsci/studentresearch/thirtiesThrowbacks.pdf Accessed: 14-10-1014.
Roth, D. (1989) Sind die Republikaner die fünfte Partei? Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 41–42 (89) 10–20.
Sotiropoulos, D. A. (2004) Formal Weakness and Informal Strength: Civil Society in Contemporary Greece. The Hellenic Observatory, the European Institute. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/5683/1/sotiropoulos16.pdf Accessed: 10-10-2014.
Szele, Á. (2012) Nationalism, Racism, Internationalism: The White Power Music Scene in Hungary and Romania. In Shekhovtsov, A. and Jackson, P. (eds.) White Power Music: Scenes of Extreme-Right Cultural Resistance. London: Searchlight and RNM Publications. 57-71.
Tipaldou, S. (2012) Rock for the Motherland: White Power Music Scene in Greece. In Shekhovtsov, A. and Jackson, P. (eds.) White Power Music: Scenes of Extreme-Right Cultural Resistance. London: Searchlight and RNM Publications. 47-55.
Stratigaki, M. (2012) Gender in economic crisis and political change: The case of Greece. Woman up! Brussels. http://www.feps-europe.eu/assets/72c7aec6-cd9b-4069-b691-c3ca48ba864d/woman%20up!.pdf Accessed: 30-10-2014.
Yuval- Davis, N. (1997) Gender and nation. London: Sage Publications.
Zakariás, I. (2014) Nationalization of charity in school programs. In Feischmidt, M. et al. (eds.) Everyday nationalism. The popular culture of neo-nationalism in Hungary. Budapest: L'Harmattan. 341-370. (In Hungarian)
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work three months after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. This acknowledgement is not automatic, it should be asked from the editors and can usually be obtained one year after its first publication in the journal.